Statutes of limitations are written laws passed by a legislative body in common law systems to set the maximum time after an event when legal proceedings may be initiated. When the period of time specified in a statute of limitations passes, a claim can no longer be filed. The intention of these laws is to facilitate resolution in a reasonable length of time. In civil-law systems, similar provisions are typically part of the civil or criminal codes and known collectively as periods of prescription. The cause of action dictates the statute of limitations, which can be reduced (or extended) to ensure a fair trial. When a statute of limitations expires in a criminal case, the court no longer has jurisdiction. Analysis of a statute of limitations includes the examination of any associated statute of repose, tolling provisions and exclusions.